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Faces of Auschwitz to release an exclusive short documentary soon. The story of Murray Goldfinger and the death marches.

Last week, the story of Murray Goldfinger, a Holocaust survivor, went viral on social media after his grandson Stephen decided to share something unusual that happened to Ms Goldfinger in January 1945. Murray (born Monek) was on The Death March west from Birkenau as Russian soldiers advanced from the east. He was tired, cold, and hungry. He saw something in the air, descending towards him. It hit him in the chest, and he caught it. A 2-lb piece of roast beef that saved his life.

I was so impressed by this story that I reached out to Stephen to introduce myself and my project, Faces of Auschwitz, to him. So I asked if it would be possible to send some questions to his grandfather because I would like to know his opinion about the project.

Stephen was extremely kind. Mr. Goldfinger, now 91, was hospitalized that same week. When he returned home, Stephen showed the pictures of Faces of Auschwitz to him, and filmed his testimonial and answers to my questions.

The result was more powerful than I expected. After seeing the colorized photos, he said, "It's like I'm there again looking at all those people."

I wanted to give Mr. Goldfinger one more chance to tell his story - something that he has been doing for 65 years. Faces of Auschwitz will release a short documentary soon, talking not only about his unbelievable story but also about the famous (and dreadful) death marches.

Check out the video for a piece of Murray Goldfinger's gripping testimonial.

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Faces of Auschwitz: Deliana Rademakers

DELIANA RADEMAKERS, born in 1923, was a Jehovah’s Witness, arrested while performing house-to-house ministry. After her initial incarceration in the occupied Netherlands, she was deported to Auschwitz via the Ravensbrück concentration camp. Deliana was registered on 20 November 1942 as prisoner 25563

In a final letter to her family, she shared her hope for freedom 'before Psalm 18:5 [The ropes of the Grave surrounded me; The snares of death confronted me] could be fulfilled' Within Deliana's religious tradition, the capitalization of the word 'Grave' implies that she was referring to Hell, rather than her final resting place. Deliana's letter continued, with greetings to the mother, her family, and the congregation of her Kingdom Hall, saying, "go bravely onwards without fear, Jehovah is with us, what can (mere) people do to us?" 

According to her death certificate, Deliana died in Auschwitz on 10 December 1942. 

 Farewell letter of Deliana Rademakers (1923 -1942). Collection of the Watch Tower Bible and Track Society of Emmen.

Farewell letter of Deliana Rademakers (1923 -1942). Collection of the Watch Tower Bible and Track Society of Emmen.

 

Jehovah’s Witnesses were persecuted by the Nazi regime.

The Nazi ideology was a complete contradiction between their morality and everyday practices. Even rendering homage to Hitler with the greeting “Heil Hitler!” was an affront to their faith. Jehovah’s Witnesses refused to participate in military training or serve in the army. This refusal was punishable by imprisonment, or even death. They also refused categorically to perform any work that, as they saw it, contributed directly to the war effort — as it is known, many German factories were mobilized for armaments production. As a result, many Witnesses, including women, were arrested and sent to concentration camps.

During the occupation, 20 Dutch Jehovah’s Witnesses were deported to Auschwitz.

The incomplete nature of the documentation and the various ways that prisoners were categorized makes it impossible to determine the exact number of Jehovah’s Witnesses in Auschwitz. However, it can be stated that at least 387 Witnesses passed through (or died at) the camp within a period of 5 years. This includes at least 138 people classified in the IBV category (Internationale Bibelforscher - Vereinigung [International Association of Bible Researchers]) and marked with a purple triangle—in other words, they were sent to Auschwitz because of their faith. At least 249 others were included in other prisoner categories, most often that of political prisoners; for them, their faith was an indirect cause of their imprisonment.

The records indicate that at least 152 Witnesses (men and women) who were imprisoned in Auschwitz died—132 in Auschwitz, and the other 20 in camps they were transferred to, or during evacuation or immediately after liberation. This means that at least 32% of those deported to Auschwitz died there.

It is estimated that over 3 thousand prisoners classified in category IBV were held in the concentration camps. More than 2 thousand of them came from Germany. The others were deported from The Netherlands (200 to 250 people), Austria (200), and Poland (100), along with some from Belgium, France, Czechoslovakia, and the USSR.

 

 

Contributors: Auschwitz Memorial and Museum; Seamus Bellamy;
Please do not reproduce the photos without proper attribution and context.

Napoleon's Grande Armée veterans

Some of the earliest photographs of veterans are a series of fifteen original sepia views of members of Napoleon's army taken when these old soldiers were well into their 70's and 80's. It is not known how Mrs. Brown acquired them. They measure 12" tall by 10" wide and are mounted on stiff card. At some time in the 20th century, the name of each veteran and his regiment was inscribed in pencil on the verso of each. Ten examples are pictured below (two others will be added later).

Burg – Grenadier 23rd Regiment Inr(?) Garde 1815 (more correctly Fourrier of the Grenadiers of the Imperial Guard - Grenadiers de la Garde Imperiale)
Delignon – Marechal de Logis Guard Jager 1809 – 1815 (actually Marechal des Logis Chef - Sergeant Major Chasseurs ‘a’ cheval de la Garde Imperiale (Guard Horse Chasseurs)
Ducel – Guard Mameluk 1813 – 1815 (Mameluk de la Garde Imperiale)
Dupont - Fourrier 1st Hussar Regiment
Vitry – Garde departementale (Departmental Reserve Company)
Verlinde – 2nd Guard Lancers 1815 or Trooper Lancer 2nd Chevau-legers-Lanciers de la Garde Imperiale
Schmitt – 2nd Jaeger Rgt zu Pfd 1813 - 14 – (2nd Jaeger zu Pferde or 2nd Chasseurs ‘a’ cheval)
Maire – 7th Hussars 1809 – 15 (actually Marechal des Logis – Sergeant)
Mauban 8th Dragoon Regiment 1815 – More correctly Trumpeter Mauban 13th Dragoons (1st Empire) and 8th Dragoons (1st and 2nd Restorations)
Taria - Sergeant, Grenadier de la Garde Imperiale 1809 – 1815 (Grenadiers of the Imperial Guard)
Loria – 24th Jaeger zu Pferd 1800 – 1815 (24th Chasseurs a cheval or 24th Mounted Chasseurs) Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour)

These remarkable photographs provide probably the only surviving images of veterans of the Grande Armée and the Guard actually wearing their original uniforms and insignia, although some of the uniforms have obviously been recut by tailors of the 1850's. Each is a formal portrait of an individual gentleman photographed in a studio. Some of the men stand in front of a blank or paneled wall on an elaborately decorated carpet, while others are seated. One old veteran who appears to have lost his right eye, Monsieur Loria of the 24th Mounted Chasseur Regiment and a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, stands against a piece of furniture that appears also in other portraits by a curtain. It is not known who the photographer was and the blurring on one or two suggests the difficulty aging subjects had in standing still for several seconds while the plates were exposed.

A tall soldier striking an elegant pose and wearing the grenadier bearskin is Sergeant Taria in the uniform of the Grenadiere de la Garde of 1809-1815. The Mameluke de la Garde is Monsieur Ducel who fought between 1813 and 1815. The dashing figure holding a plumed shako in his right hand is M. Dreuse of the 2nd Light Horse Lancers of the Guard, circa 1813-14. There is Monsieur Mauban of the 8th Dragoon Regiment of 1815 seated and M. Maire of the 7th Hussars circa 1809-15. Wearing a fine shapka is M. Verlinde of the 2nd Lancers, 1815, and seated in a grand hussar uniform is Monsieur Moret of the 2nd Regiment, 1814/15. Monsieur Vitry of the Departmental Guard leans against a piece of furniture by a curtain, while M. Dupont who was fourier for the 1st Hussar, stands with a Mameluke sword.

There is the portly Quartermaster Sergeant Delignon in the uniform of a Mounted Chasseur of the Guard, 1809-1815. Completing the series are Monsieur Schmit of the 2nd Mounted Chasseur Regiment (1813-14) wearing a floppy cap, and finally Grenadier Burg of the 24th Regiment of the Guard of 1815 with his white beard. A carte-de-visite does exist of Moret in a slightly different position than the studio photo.

When and why these men were photographed is a mystery but some clues are offered in Henri Bouchot's book L'Epopée du Costume Militaire Franç ais published in Paris in 1898, and containing pictures by the famous French military illustrator, Job. There is a color plate with a transparent overlay bearing the titled 'Les Vieux de la vieille, Le 5 Mai, 1855'. This depicts ten Napoleonic veterans in their full uniforms passing the column in the center of the Place Vendô me erected by Napoleon to commemorate the battle of Austerlitz. A Second Empire zouave of the current French army looks at the hunched and slow moving procession. Most significantly is the fact that two of the veterans are carrying wreaths. If one compares the individuals in the photographs, they match up very well with the figures crossing the square.

The date of the event - May 5, - provides the reason why these men were in Paris for that was the anniversary of the death of Napoleon and every year on that date veterans gathered in the capital, as the Times of London in May 1855 noted: 'The base and railings of the column of the Place Vendô me appear this day decked out with the annual offerings to the memory of the man whose statue adorns the summit. The display of garlands of immortelles, and other tributes of the kind, is greater than usual...the old soldiers of the Empire performed their usual homage yesterday at the same place.' On the same day, a funeral service was held in the chapel of the Invalides attended by Prince Jerome and other dignitaries. The entire personnel of the Invalides as well as soldiers of the First Empire were present.

A more likely date however, is May 5, 1858, because all the veterans are wearing the Saint Helene medal which had been issued on August 12, 1857 to all veterans of the wars of the Revolution and the Empire. 

 

Source and courtesy of Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library. Special thanks to Professor Charles J. Esdaile, Henry Volquardsen, Josh Provan, Laurent Wiart and Matthew Sage.

Faces of Auschwitz: Salomon Honig

SALOMON HONIG, a Polish Jew, was born on 15 May 1889 to Ryfka Honig in the village of Kołaczyce near Jasło. At the time, Jasło was considered to be a part of Poland, under the Austro-Hungarian Partition.  At the time of his arrest Salomon Honig was living at Folwarcznastrasse 11 in Tarnów, Poland. He worked as a merchant. There are no known records that detail the circumstances of his arrest.

The metal device visible in the left picture was part of a spinning chair. It held the head in the correct position during the photographing. 

Salomon was deported to the German Nazi Auschwitz concentration camp on 5 March 1942. He was part of a group of 27 inmates sent from the prison in Tarnów to Auschwitz by the order of the Sicherheitsdienst.  During his registration at the camp, Solomon was issued prisoner number 26389. 

Honig was deported to Auschwitz before the beginning of mass extermination of Jews in gas chambers as part of the "Final Solution to the Jewish question” - the extermination of European Jews planned by Nazi Germany. Between June 1940 and March 1942, around 2,000–2,100 Jews were taken to the camp, of which number nearly 90% were killed. The Auschwitz Memorial Archives preserves 38,916 photos of registered prisoners (31,969 photos of men & 6,947 photos of women). The photographs were taken from the first quarter of 1941 until spring 1943. This means that the photographs that exist today show less than 10 percent of all registered prisoners of Auschwitz (approximately 400 thousand people). 

In this project, we will show both some of the prisoners whose stories are well known and documented but also people about whom we know very little or nothing. 

• Learn more about the story of Jewish prisoners of the camp in this online lesson provided by the Auschwitz Memorial.

 A page from the daily record books with names of prisoners who died on 18 March 1942 - Salomon Honig is listed second from the bottom.

A page from the daily record books with names of prisoners who died on 18 March 1942 - Salomon Honig is listed second from the bottom.

Please do not share the photos without proper attribution and context.

Special thanks to Auschwitz Memorial and Museum for collaborating with me on this project and providing all the information above. Collaborator: Seamus Bellamy.


Faces of Auschwitz signs sponsorship deal with the Michael Frank Family Charitable Fund

When I decided to create "Faces of Auschwitz", my ultimate goal was clear: I did not want the impact of this project to be limited by digital barriers. The central aim has always been to reach as many people as possible, taking the important lessons left by the Holocaust to all who want to learn more about them. It was as if everything was aligned so that I could meet Michael Frank, a New York entrepreneur as passionate by the idea of the project as I am. Michael and I jumped into a phone call, and we soon realized that we share the same vision and are equally excited about the opportunity to contribute in some way to creating a better world. The Michael Frank Family Charitable Fund is now the official sponsor of the project and will be making monetary and non-monetary contributions so that we can make the impact of this project resonate beyond any limits. From now on, we can set more ambitious goals and invest in major activities, such as touring exhibitions, books, talks, educational events in general, and others. The investment will be aimed at expanding the reach of the project and creating a solid foundation that will enable us to talk with more and more people through a variety of plataforms. I am delighted, honored by the generosity and opportunity to work with Michael, and hopeful that we will take the stories - and faces - of the victims far beyond the digital world. -Marina Amaral, founder.  

The Foundation

The Michael Frank Family Charitable Fund was recently established in 2018. Its mission is to find unique and creative “start-up” projects that have the capability to impact a large audience in a positive way.

The Foundation’s founder, Michael Frank, grew up in Long Island, New York. An entrepreneur at heart, he began his first business at age 11 shoveling driveways during snow storms. At a young age, he can remember feeling soulfully connected to the events of the Holocaust and it having a profound effect on him. He attended the University of Michigan where he continued with his innate entrepreneurial endeavors opening a handful of businesses geared toward college students. Between his junior and senior year, he spent a summer as a civilian volunteer in the Israeli Defense Force, an experience that would continue to strengthen his connection to the events of the Holocaust and to Israel and lay the groundwork for his dedication of wanting to make the world a better place.

After his University studies, Michael moved to New York City and began working in advertising where he would later open his own advertising agency. He ran a decade-long business in New York City event’s promotion and in 2006 began his building and development business. Today, his highly successful residential real estate development business focuses on building luxury homes in the Hamptons.

Michael is a Board Member of the Long Island Hearing and Speech Society, a Trustee at The Jewish Center of the Hamptons, and a former Board Member of AISH New York. In 2013, he created the “Survivor-Soldier project that focused on the experience of Holocaust survivors on the modern day Israeli soldier. Across 4 venues in the United States, a large audience got to hear a Holocaust Survivor’s miraculous story while hearing from soldiers the effects it has on their morale and actions in the military today.

In March of 2018, while reading a local New York newspaper, Michael and his wife Giulia came across Marina Amaral’s colorization photo of Auschwitz prisoner Czeslawa Kwoka. “We were so moved by it. The color gave the young victim life, it gave her a story. We knew instantly we had to get involved with this.” Michael connected with Marina and saw right away that “here was not only an incredibly talented artist but a bright, creative, soulful person way beyond her years.” They shared a similar vision – how do we tell more stories like that of Czeslawa Kwoka? The timing was perfect as Marina had just gotten permission from the Auschwitz Memorial and Museum to work on more photos like this. The Auschwitz Memorial will also provide access to different documents about the prisoners as well as help in writing and developing the historically accurate content of this project.

The project, “Faces of Auschwitz” aims to colorize black and white Auschwitz victims’ photos while telling their stories, to the best we can find. The Michael Frank Family Charitable Fund is proud, humbled and excited to be the sponsor.

Michael resides in New York City. He celebrated this year his marriage to his wife Giulia. They both share a goal to expand their family foundation to new and meaningful causes and are both committed to Marina and the “Faces of Auschwitz” project and are determined to try and expose these photos and stories to the largest audience possible.

Faces of Auschwitz: Janina Nowak

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In 2016, I colorized Czesława Kwoka’s photo and posted it on social media. She was just 14 when she was murdered behind the walls of Auschwitz concentration camp on 12 March, 1943. Her photo is haunting. Staring straight into the camera, her eyes tell a story of fear and horrors that few of us, in modern times, can understand or relate to. The expression on her face has never left me since the first time I saw her.

However, Czesława was not the only one to be murdered by Auschwitz’s butchers. 1.3 million others were brutalized, starved and killed within the camp’s walls. Monsterous hatred was leveled against them for nothing more than their being who they were: Jews, Poles, Sini & Roma or Soviet POWs; Christians, Protestants, Orthodox or Jehovah Witnesses; disabled people or homosexuals. We must remember them for who they were.

FACES OF AUSCHWITZ aims to recover these stories and present them to the world through a modern perspective, so that current and future generations will be able to look back at those we lost, understand the roots of hate and ensure that the atrocities of the past will never happen again. This project is supported by the Auschwitz Memorial and Museum. 


JANINA NOWAK was a Polish woman born on August 19, 1917, in Będów near Łódź. She was deported to the German Nazi Auschwitz camp on June 12, 1942 and received the prisoner number 7615 during registration. Janina was the first female prisoner who escaped from Auschwitz.

 

On June 24, 1942 Janina escaped from a work party, known as a Kommando, consisting of 200 Polish women working near the Soła river, drying hay. After she was reported missing, the soldiers of the Nazi SS unsuccessfully attempted to chase her down. Exasperated by the loss of their prisoner, the SS led the remaining female prisoners from the Nowak's Kommando back to the camp. The camp's political officers interrogated the other members of the Kommando over the details of her escape. The women, for their part, provided their captors with no answers. As the camp's officers were unable to punish Nowak for gaining her freedom, their anger was laid upon her fellows, instead. That evening, as a punishment, the women of the Nowak's Kommando were all forced to have their hair cropped short (before this only Jewish female prisoners had their hair cut in the camp).

The following next day, the entire Kommando was re-designated a penal company and sent to one of Auschwitz's sub-camps, called Budy, located roughly 6 km from the main camp. The accommodations at Budy consisted of a former school building, a ramshackle wooden barracks, a small kitchen and latrines, all of which were surrounded by barbed wire.  The women of the penal company were forced to toil in extremely harsh conditions cleaning nearby ponds, cutting bulrushes and digging drainage ditches--all of which was undertaken as part of a German scheme to turn Auschwitz into a centre for agricultural research.

A few days later, Nowak's former Kommando was joined at Budy by a cadre of 200 female prisoners consisting of French Jews and Slovakian nationals. The penal company was surprised by a group of German kapos*, who brutalized their charges in the name of meeting the production targets set by their German SS camp supervisors.

After escaping Auschwitz, Janina Nowak managed to reach Łódz. She evaded the authorities until March 1943 when she was arrested. On 8 May 1943, Nowak was brought to Auschwitz once again, where she received a new prisoner number - 31529. In 1943, she was transferred to KL Ravensbrück where she was liberated at the end of April 1945.

  • Janina was one of 50 women who tried to escape from the Auschwitz camp..
    Learn more about escapes from this online lesson.
  • All together ca. 131 thousand women became prisoners of the German Nazi Auschwitz concentration camp: 82 thousand Jewish, 31 thousand Polish, 11 thousand Roma as well as Russian, Belorussian, German, French, Czech, Yugoslavian & others.

 

A kapo, one of many kinds of prisoner functionary (German: Funktionshäftling) was a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp who was assigned by the SS guards to supervise forced labor. Other functionaries like block masters, room masters, clerks & others carried out different administrative tasks or supervised prisoners inside the blocks. The prisoner functionary system minimized costs by allowing camps to function with fewer SS personnel. The system was designed to turn victim against victim, as the prisoner functionaries were pitted against their fellow prisoners in order to maintain the favor of their SS overseers. If they were derelict, they could be returned to the status of ordinary prisoners and be subject to other kapos. Many prisoner functionaries were recruited from the ranks of violent criminal gangs rather than from the more numerous political, religious, and racial prisoners; such criminal convicts were known for their brutality toward other prisoners. This brutality was tolerated by the SS and was an integral part of the camp system. Prisoner functionaries were spared physical abuse and hard labor, provided they performed their duties to the satisfaction of the SS functionaries. They also had access to certain privileges, such as civilian clothes and a private room. While the Germans commonly called them kapos, the official government term for prisoner functionaries was Funktionshäftling. While at the beginning in Auschwitz most functionaries were German criminals, later SS started using members of different groups of prisoners. While many of the functionaries were indeed brutal, some tried not to harm others and only pretend violence when SS guards watched them, and in many cases political prisoners tried to take over some of the positions because they were able to use them to help other prisoners. Some functionaries were members of resistance movement. .
 Telegram dated March 12 1943 informing about Janina's arrest.

Telegram dated March 12 1943 informing about Janina's arrest.

 

 

 

Contributors: Auschwitz Memorial and Museum; Seamus Bellamy;
Please do not reproduce the photos without proper attribution and context.


Pre-order now: The Colour of Time: A New History of the World, 1850-1960

The Colour of Time spans more than a hundred years of world history from the reign of Queen Victoria and the US Civil War to the Cuban Missile Crisis and beginning of the Space Age. It charts the rise and fall of empires, the achievements of science, industry and the arts, the tragedies of war and the politics of peace, and the lives of men and women who made history.

The book is a collaboration between me and a leading British historian, Dan Jones. 200 stunning images were created for the book, using contemporary photographs as the basis for my full-colour digital renditions. Dan Jones has written a narrative that anchors each image in its context, and weaves them into a vivid account of the world that made the world we live in today.

PRE-ORDER NOW! 
USA || UK

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A fusion of amazing pictures and well-chosen words, The Colour of Time offers a unique – and often beautiful – perspective on the past.

Opening of the exhibition - German Football Museum

Some photos of the opening of the special exhibition "FUSSBALL BILD MACHT FUSSBALL-GESCHICHTE LEBENDIG" (FUSSBALL BILD Brings Football History to Life). 10 historically important moments of German football history exhibited in color for the first time. The event took place in Dortmund, at the German Football Museum last weekend (11-04-2017). Special guests: Hans-Joachim Watzke (CEO of Borussia Dortmund) and Klaus Fischer (German former footballer and coach). The photos will be on display at the German Football Museum in Dortmund until 31.12 - go check them out! Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 44137 Dortmund

This project is a collaboration between me and FUSSBALL BILD. Thanks for our partnership in another great project!

Titanic prepares to leave port, 1912

RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early morning hours of 15 April 1912, after it collided with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. There were an estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard the ship, and more than 1,500 died, making it one of the deadliest commercial peacetime maritime disasters in modern history. The RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time it entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line. The Titanic was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, her architect, died in the disaster.

Titanic was under the command of Edward Smith, who also went down with the ship. The ocean liner carried some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere throughout Europe who were seeking a new life in the United States. The first-class accommodation was designed to be the pinnacle of comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, libraries, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins. A high-powered radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use. Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, there were not enough lifeboats to accommodate all of those aboard, due to outdated maritime safety regulations. Titanic only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—slightly more than half of the number on board, and one third of her total capacity.

After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before heading west to New York. On 14 April, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the ship's hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard (right) side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea; she could only survive four flooding. Meanwhile, passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partially loaded. A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol for loading lifeboats. At 2:20 a.m., she broke apart and foundered—with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after the Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived at the scene, where she brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors.

The disaster was met with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that had led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which still governs maritime safety today. Additionally, several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers.

The wreck of Titanic was first discovered in 1985 (more than 70 years after the disaster), and the vessel remains on the seabed. The ship was split in two and is gradually disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Since her discovery in 1985, thousands of artefacts have been recovered and put on display at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history; her memory is kept alive by numerous works of popular culture, including books, folk songs, films, exhibits, and memorials. Titanic is the second largest ocean liner wreck in the world, only beaten by her sister HMHS Britannic, the largest ever sunk.

Invitation to the opening of the special exhibition: FUSSBALL BILD MACHT FUSSBALL-GESCHICHTE LEBENDIG

We heartily invite you to the opening of the special exhibition FUSSBALL BILD MACHT FUSSBALL-GESCHICHTE LEBENDIG (FUSSBALL BILD brings football history to life). 10 historically important moments of German football history will be exhibited. FUSSBALL BILD MACHT FUSSBALL-GESCHICHTE LEBENDIG shows the black and white photos for the first time in color. Artist Marina Amaral has painstakingly colored the original photos pixel by pixel.

4 November 2017 at the German Football Museum (Deutschen Fußballmuseum)\
BEGINNING: 1 pm Please register by 27.10.2017 at the invitation@fussballmuseum.de and let us know if you will be accompanied.

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  • Welcoming by Manuel Neukirchner, Director of the German Football Museum.
  • Talk before the Bundesliga game Borussia Dortmund vs Bayern Munich, with BVB Managing Director Hans-Joachim Watzke. Moderation: Matthias Brügelmann, Editor in Chief Sport of the BILD Group.
  • Get-together with a small drink in the Mercedes-Benz lounge.

    For the opening, the photos will be displayed in the arena of the museum. The special exhibition will take place from 5.11.2017 in the German Football Museum.

    Deutsches Fußballmuseum | Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1 | 44137 Dortmund

Hitler with some of his SS-Begleitkommando guards at the Wolf’s Lair, World War II

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers ("SS Escort Command of the Führer"), later known as the Führerbegleitkommando (Führer Escort Command; FBK) was originally an eight-man SS squad formed from a twelve-man security squad (known as the SS-Begleitkommando) tasked with protecting the life of Adolf Hitler during the early 1930s. It was expanded and remained responsible for Hitler's personal protection until 30 April 1945.

The last FBK commander was SS-Obersturmbannführer Franz Schädle, who was appointed on 5 January 1945, after the dismissal of Bruno Gesche. Thereafter, Schädle and the FBK accompanied Hitler (and his entourage) into the Führerbunker complex under the Reich Chancellery garden in the central government sector of Berlin. By 23 April 1945, Schädle commanded approximately 30 members of the unit who stood guard for Hitler until his suicide on 30 April 1945.

Westminster Bridge with trams, London, 1918-1919

Westminster Bridge is a road-and-foot-traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, linking Westminster on the west side and Lambeth on the east side.

The bridge is painted predominantly green, the same color as the leather seats in the House of Commons which is on the side of the Palace of Westminster nearest to the bridge. This is in contrast to Lambeth Bridge, which is red, the same color as the seats in the House of Lords and is on the opposite side of the Houses of Parliament.
The first generation of trams in London started in 1860 when a horse tramway began operating along Victoria Street in Westminster.

After the slow start, electric trams rapidly became very popular; by 1903, there were 300 electric tramcars in London, which carried 800,000 passengers over Whitsun weekend in 1903. The London County Council Tramways first electric line opened in May 1903 between Westminster Bridge and Tooting and the LCC sold 3.3 million tickets in its third year of business or five times the traffic carried by its horse trams.

By 1914, the London tram operators formed the largest tram network in Europe but the onset of the Great War saw a halt in the expansion of the trams and thousands of staff left to join the armed forces to be replaced by "substitute" women conductors and drivers.

Dom Pedro II, last Emperor of Brazil

Today is celebrated Brazil's Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves on September 7, 1822. Dom Pedro II (photo), the last Emperor of Brazil, is the son of Dom Pedro I, the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.

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In 1808, French troops commanded by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Portugal as a retaliation for the Iberian country's refusal to participate in the trade embargo against the United Kingdom. Fleeing persecution, the Portuguese monarchs transferred the Portuguese Court from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, then capital of Colonial Brazil. In 1815, Prince Regent John VI created the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, elevating Brazil to the rank of kingdom and increasing its administrative independence. With the defeat of Napoleon, it was safe for the Portuguese crown to return to Portugal. However, John VI opted to stay in Brazil. With an increasingly irritated nobility in Portugal threatening to remove him from the throne, he returned only in 1821. His son, Pedro I (photo), remained as regent in Brazil, but after years of being Portugal’s equal, its status was reduced as the Portuguese elites tried to reassert imperial authority over the former colony. This change did not sit well with Brazilian elites who had been at the political center of the empire for thirteen years. With pressure mounting within Brazil, and with a wave of independence movements finding success throughout Spanish America, Brazil followed its own peculiar path, and on September 7, 1822, Pedro I formally broke with Portugal, allegedly proclaiming “Independence or Death!”.

 Imperial Family

Imperial Family

Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the seventh child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. His father's abrupt abdication and departure to Europe in 1831 left a five-year-old Pedro II as Emperor and led to a grim and lonely childhood and adolescence. Obliged to spend his time studying in preparation for rule, he knew only brief moments of happiness and encountered few friends of his age. His experiences with court intrigues and political disputes during this period greatly affected his later character; he grew into a man with a strong sense of duty and devotion toward his country and his people, yet increasingly resentful of his role as monarch.

Inheriting an Empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II turned Portuguese-speaking Brazil into an emerging power in the international arena. The nation grew to be distinguished from its Hispanic neighbors on account of its political stability, zealously guarded freedom of speech, respect for civil rights, vibrant economic growth and especially for its form of government: a functional, representative parliamentary monarchy. Brazil was also victorious in three international conflicts (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the Paraguayan War) under his rule, as well as prevailing in several other international disputes and domestic tensions. Pedro II steadfastly pushed through the abolition of slavery despite opposition from powerful political and economic interests. A savant in his own right, the Emperor established a reputation as a vigorous sponsor of learning, culture and the sciences. He won the respect and admiration of scholars such as Charles Darwin, Victor Hugo and Friedrich Nietzsche, and was a friend to Richard Wagner, Louis Pasteur and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, among others.

Although there was no desire for a change in the form of government among most Brazilians, the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup that had almost no support besides from a couple of military leaders who desired a form of republic headed by a dictator. Pedro II had become weary of emperorship and despaired over the monarchy's future prospects, despite its overwhelming popular support. He did not allow his ouster to be opposed and did not support any attempt to restore the monarchy. He spent the last two years of his life in exile in Europe, living alone on very little money.

D. Pedro II morto.jpg

The reign of Pedro II thus came to an unusual end—he was overthrown while highly regarded by the people and at the pinnacle of his popularity, and some of his accomplishments were soon brought to naught as Brazil slipped into a long period of weak governments, dictatorships, and constitutional and economic crisis. The men who had exiled him soon began to see in him a model for the Brazilian republic. A few decades after his death, his reputation was restored and his remains were returned to Brazil with celebrations nationwide. Historians have regarded the Emperor in an extremely positive light.

He died in Paris in December 1891.

Okinawa, "Death Valley". Photograph showing marine PFC Paul E. Ison running over open ground. He had already run across two times. May 1945.

One of the most famous Marine pictures of WWII, showing Ison (1916-2001) running over bare ground in Death Valley, Okinawa, the photographer, Bob Bailey, was lying flat in the dirt snapping the shot as he ran past, dodging marine gun fire from many sides. The Marine Corps took up the shot and it was widely used in the Press to illustrate the doggedness, fortitude, and tenacity of the front-line Marine.

Ison, 1st Division, 3rd Battalion, Lima company was a demolitions man in a group of 4 who were sent ahead to knock out defensive pillboxes and positions. In this episode in Death Valley he had already run across two times and somehow remained unscathed. The first was in the morning, to reach the demo position. The second was to return to HQ to pick up the explosives which they had previously been told were already at the demo site. The third was to return to the demo site with the explosives. This is Ison's own copy of the image, the original image having the figure slightly to the left of center. 

He was 28 when the photo was taken and had four kids when he joined the Marine Corps to defend his country. On this day, in an eight-hour period, the Marines sustained 125 casualties crossing this particular valley. The Marine Corps Historical Centre (1998) notes that: overall American losses in the land battle (on Okinawa) amounted to 7,374 killed, 31,807 wounded and 239 missing in action. At sea and in the air, the Navy reported 36 US ships sunk, 368 damaged, 763 aircraft lost to all causes, 4,907 seamen killed or missing in action and 4,824 wounded.

Despite the magnitude of these losses by the Americans, the Japanese sustained even greater casualties at Okinawa than in any previous Pacific battle.

The US military estimates that 110,071 Japanese soldiers were killed during the battle. This total includes conscripted Okinawan civilians.A total of 7,401 Japanese regulars and 3,400 Okinawan conscripts surrendered or were captured during the battle. Additional Japanese and renegade Okinawans were captured or surrendered over the next few months, bringing the total to 16,346. This was the first battle in the Pacific War in which thousands of Japanese soldiers surrendered or were captured. Many of the prisoners were native Okinawans who had been pressed into service shortly before the battle, and were less imbued with the Imperial Japanese Army's no-surrender doctrine. When the American forces occupied the island, many Japanese soldiers put on Okinawan clothing to avoid capture, and some Okinawans would come to the Americans' aid by offering to identify these mainland Japanese.

The Japanese lost 16 combat vessels, including the super battleship Yamato. Postwar examination of Japanese records revealed that Japanese aircraft losses at Okinawa were far below often-repeated US estimates for the campaign. The number of conventional and kamikaze aircraft actually lost or expended by the 3rd, 5th, and 10th Air Fleets, combined with about 500 lost or expended by the Imperial Army at Okinawa, was roughly 1,430. The Allies destroyed 27 Japanese tanks and 743 artillery pieces (including mortars, anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns), some of them eliminated by the naval and air bombardments but most knocked out by American counter-battery fire.

Some of the other islands that saw major battles in World War II, such as Iwo Jima, were uninhabited or had been evacuated. Okinawa, by contrast, had a large indigenous civilian population; US Army records from the planning phase of the operation make the assumption that Okinawa was home to about 300,000 civilians. According to various estimates, between a tenth and a third of them died during the battle, between 30,000 and 100,000. Okinawa Prefecture's estimate is over 100,000 losses, while the official US Army count for the 82-day campaign is a total of 142,058 civilian casualties, including those killed by artillery fire, air attacks, and those pressed into service by the Imperial Japanese Army.

During the battle, American soldiers found it difficult to distinguish civilians from soldiers. It became common for them to shoot at Okinawan houses

In its history of the war, the Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum presents Okinawa as being caught between the United States and the Empire of Japan. During the 1945 battle, the Japanese Army showed indifference to Okinawans' safety, and its soldiers even used civilians as human shields or just outright murdered them. The Japanese military confiscated food from the Okinawans and executed those who hid it, leading to mass starvation, and forced civilians out of their shelters. Japanese soldiers also killed about 1,000 people who spoke in the Okinawan language to suppress spying. The museum writes that "some were blown apart by [artillery] shells, some finding themselves in a hopeless situation were driven to suicide, some died of starvation, some succumbed to malaria, while others fell victim to the retreating Japanese troops."

With the impending Japanese defeat, civilians often committed mass suicide, urged on by the Japanese soldiers who told locals that victorious American soldiers would go on a rampage of killing and raping. Ryūkyū Shimpō, one of the two major Okinawan newspapers, wrote in 2007: "There are many Okinawans who have testified that the Japanese Army directed them to commit suicide. There are also people who have testified that they were handed grenades by Japanese soldiers" to blow themselves up. Thousands of civilians, having been induced by Japanese propaganda to believe that American soldiers were barbarians who committed horrible atrocities, killed their families and themselves to avoid capture. Some of them threw themselves and their family members from the southern cliffs where the Peace Museum now resides. Okinawans "were often surprised at the comparatively humane treatment they received from the American enemy". Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power by Mark Selden notes that the Americans "did not pursue a policy of torture, rape, and murder of civilians as Japanese military officials had warned". American Military Intelligence Corps combat translators such as Teruto Tsubota managed to convince many civilians not to kill themselves. Survivors of the mass suicides blamed also the indoctrination of their education system of the time, in which the Okinawans were taught to become "more Japanese than the Japanese", and were expected to prove it.

Witnesses and historians reported that soldiers, mainly Japanese troops, raped Okinawan women during the battle. Rape by Japanese troops "became common" in June, after it became clear that the Japanese Army had been defeated. Marine Corps officials in Okinawa and Washington have said that they knew of no rapes by American personnel in Okinawa at the end of the war. There are, however, numerous credible testimony accounts which allege that a large number of rapes were committed by American forces during the battle. This includes claimed rape after trading sexual favors or even marrying Americans, such as the alleged incident in the village of Katsuyama, where civilians said they had formed a vigilante group to ambush and kill three black American soldiers whom they claimed would frequently rape the local girls there.

Source: Wikipedia

Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April [O.S. 10 April] 1870  – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as head of government of the Russian Republic from 1917 to 1918, of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1918 to 1924, and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism.

Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's execution in 1887. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist government, he devoted the following years to a law degree. He moved to Saint Petersburg in 1893 and became a senior figure in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP). In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent party theorist through his publications. In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during Russia's failed Revolution of 1905, he later campaigned for the First World War to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution, which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution ousted the Tsar and established a Provisional Government, he returned to Russia to play a leading role in the October Revolution, in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the new regime.

 1917 February Revolution

1917 February Revolution

Lenin's Bolshevik government initially shared power with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, and a multi-party Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the new Communist Party. Lenin's administration redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry. It withdrew from the First World War by signing a treaty with the Central Powers and promoted world revolution through the Communist International. Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign administered by the state security services; tens of thousands were killed or interned in concentration camps. His administration defeated right and left-wing anti-Bolshevik armies in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922 and oversaw the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–1921. Responding to wartime devastation, famine, and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin encouraged economic growth through the market-orientated New Economic Policy. Several non-Russian nations secured independence after 1917, but three re-united with Russia through the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922. In increasingly poor health, Lenin expressed opposition to the growing power of his successor, Joseph Stalin, before dying at his dacha in Gorki.

Widely considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, Lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. He became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism-Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement. A controversial and highly divisive individual, Lenin is viewed by supporters as a champion of socialism and the working class, while critics on both the left and right emphasize his role as founder of an authoritarian regime responsible for political repression and mass killings.

A MAJOR NEW HISTORY OF THE WORLD - THE COLOUR OF TIME

After over a year of intense work, I am extremely proud and excited to announce my first book: THE COLOUR OF TIME. Spanning more than a hundred years of world history from the reign of Queen Victoria and the American Civil War to the Cuban Missile Crisis and the beginning of the Space Age, The Colour of Time will chart the rise and fall of empires, the achievements of science, industry and the arts, the tragedies of war and the politics of peace, and the lives of the men and women who made history. We will tell you this fascinating story through 200 stunning colorized photographs - the majority of them will be seen in color for the first time ever.

The Colour of Time is the first in a planned series of books, which offer a new and exciting way of bringing the past to life in the present.

This project is a collaboration between me and bestselling historian Dan Jones, who is an author with an incredible and unique talent to tell stories. His narrative anchors each image in its chronological context, and weaves them into a compelling account of the events that made the world we live in today. Having the opportunity to work with him has been one of the best and greatest experiences of my life. We are both very excited and eager to share more details soon!

You can follow us on Twitter to keep yourself up to date with anything related to this amazing project:

Marina Amaral
Dan Jones

The Colour of Time will be published by Head of Zeus and our international partners in September 2018.

Immigrants arrive at Ellis Island, 1916.

Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the United States as the nation's busiest immigrant inspection station for over sixty years from 1892 until 1954. The island was greatly expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and later a naval magazine. The island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990.

In the 35 years before Ellis Island opened, more than eight million immigrants arriving in New York City had been processed by New York State officials at Castle Garden Immigration Depot in Lower Manhattan, just across the bay. The federal government assumed control of immigration on April 18, 1890, and Congress appropriated $75,000 to construct America's first federal immigration station on Ellis Island. Artesian wells were dug, and landfill was hauled in from incoming ships' ballast and from construction of New York City's subway tunnels, which doubled the size of Ellis Island to over six acres. While the building was under construction, the Barge Office nearby at the Battery was used for immigrant processing.

The first station was an enormous three-story-tall structure, with outbuildings, built of Georgia pine, containing all of the amenities that were thought to be necessary. It opened with celebration on January 1, 1892. Three large ships landed on the first day and 700 immigrants passed over the docks. Almost 450,000 immigrants were processed at the station during its first year. On June 15, 1897, a fire of unknown origin, possibly caused by faulty wiring, turned the wooden structures on Ellis Island into ashes. No loss of life was reported, but most of the immigration records dating back to 1855 were destroyed. About 1.5 million immigrants had been processed at the first building during its five years of use. Plans were immediately made to build a new, fireproof immigration station on Ellis Island. During the construction period, passenger arrivals were again processed at the Barge Office.

Edward Lippincott Tilton and William A. Boring won the 1897 competition to design the first phase, including the Main Building (1897–1900), Kitchen and Laundry Building (1900–01), Main Powerhouse (1900–01), and the Main Hospital Building (1900–01).

The present main structure was designed in French Renaissance Revival style and built of red brick with limestone trim. After it opened on December 17, 1900, the facilities proved to be able to barely handle the flood of immigrants that arrived in the years before World War I. Writer Louis Adamic came to America from Slovenia , then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1913 and described the night he and many other immigrants slept on bunk beds in a huge hall. Lacking a warm blanket, the young man "shivered, sleepless, all night, listening to snores" and dreams "in perhaps a dozen different languages". The facility was so large that the dining room could seat 1,000 people. It is reported that the island’s first immigrant to be processed through was a teenager named Annie Moore from County Cork in Ireland.

After its opening, Ellis Island was again expanded with landfill and additional structures were built. By the time it closed on November 12, 1954, twelve million immigrants had been processed by the U.S. Bureau of Immigration. It is estimated that 10.5 million immigrants departed for points across the United States from the Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal, located just across a narrow strait. Others would have used one of the other terminals along the North River (Hudson River) at that time. At first, the majority of immigrants arriving through the station were Northern and Western Europeans (Germany, Ireland, Britain and the Scandinavian countries). Eventually, these groups of peoples slowed in the rates that they were coming in, and immigrants came in from Southern and Eastern Europe, including Jews. Many reasons these immigrants came to the United States included escaping political and economic oppression, as well as persecution, destitution, and violence. Other groups of peoples being processed through the station were Poles, Hungarians, Czechs, Serbs, Slovaks, Greeks, Syrians, Turks, and Armenians.

Between 1905 and 1914, an average of one million immigrants per year arrived in the United States. Immigration officials reviewed about 5,000 immigrants per day during peak times at Ellis Island. Two-thirds of those individuals emigrated from eastern, southern and central Europe. The peak year for immigration at Ellis Island was 1907, with 1,004,756 immigrants processed. The all-time daily high occurred on April 17, 1907, when 11,747 immigrants arrived. After the Immigration Act of 1924 was passed, which greatly restricted immigration and allowed processing at overseas embassies, the only immigrants to pass through the station were those who had problems with their immigration paperwork, displaced persons, and war refugees. Today, over 100 million Americans—about one-third to forty percent of the population of the United States—can trace their ancestry to the immigrants who first arrived in America at Ellis Island before dispersing to points all over the country.

Generally, those immigrants who were approved spent from two to five hours at Ellis Island. Arrivals were asked 29 questions including name, occupation, and the amount of money carried. It was important to the American government that the new arrivals could support themselves and have money to get started. The average the government wanted the immigrants to have was between 18 and 25 dollars ($600 in 2015 adjusted for inflation). Those with visible health problems or diseases were sent home or held in the island's hospital facilities for long periods of time. More than three thousand would-be immigrants died on Ellis Island while being held in the hospital facilities. Some unskilled workers were rejected because they were considered "likely to become a public charge." About 2 percent were denied admission to the U.S. and sent back to their countries of origin for reasons such as having a chronic contagious disease, criminal background, or insanity. Ellis Island was sometimes known as "The Island of Tears" or "Heartbreak Island" because of those 2% who were not admitted after the long transatlantic voyage. The Kissing Post is a wooden column outside the Registry Room, where new arrivals were greeted by their relatives and friends, typically with tears, hugs and kisses.

The first immigrant to pass through Ellis Island was Annie Moore, a 17-year-old girl from Cork, Ireland, who arrived on the ship Nevada on January 1, 1892. She and her two brothers were coming to America to meet their parents, who had moved to New York two years prior. She received a greeting from officials and a $10 gold coin. It was the largest sum of money she had ever owned.

The last person to pass through Ellis Island was a Norwegian merchant seaman by the name of Arne Peterssen in 1954.