Napoleon's Grande Armée veterans

Some of the earliest photographs of veterans are a series of fifteen original sepia views of members of Napoleon's army taken when these old soldiers were well into their 70's and 80's. It is not known how Mrs. Brown acquired them. They measure 12" tall by 10" wide and are mounted on stiff card. At some time in the 20th century, the name of each veteran and his regiment was inscribed in pencil on the verso of each. Ten examples are pictured below (two others will be added later).

Burg – Grenadier 23rd Regiment Inr(?) Garde 1815 (more correctly Fourrier of the Grenadiers of the Imperial Guard - Grenadiers de la Garde Imperiale)
Delignon – Marechal de Logis Guard Jager 1809 – 1815 (actually Marechal des Logis Chef - Sergeant Major Chasseurs ‘a’ cheval de la Garde Imperiale (Guard Horse Chasseurs)
Ducel – Guard Mameluk 1813 – 1815 (Mameluk de la Garde Imperiale)
Dupont - Fourrier 1st Hussar Regiment
Vitry – Garde departementale (Departmental Reserve Company)
Verlinde – 2nd Guard Lancers 1815 or Trooper Lancer 2nd Chevau-legers-Lanciers de la Garde Imperiale
Schmitt – 2nd Jaeger Rgt zu Pfd 1813 - 14 – (2nd Jaeger zu Pferde or 2nd Chasseurs ‘a’ cheval)
Maire – 7th Hussars 1809 – 15 (actually Marechal des Logis – Sergeant)
Mauban 8th Dragoon Regiment 1815 – More correctly Trumpeter Mauban 13th Dragoons (1st Empire) and 8th Dragoons (1st and 2nd Restorations)
Taria - Sergeant, Grenadier de la Garde Imperiale 1809 – 1815 (Grenadiers of the Imperial Guard)
Loria – 24th Jaeger zu Pferd 1800 – 1815 (24th Chasseurs a cheval or 24th Mounted Chasseurs) Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour)

These remarkable photographs provide probably the only surviving images of veterans of the Grande Armée and the Guard actually wearing their original uniforms and insignia, although some of the uniforms have obviously been recut by tailors of the 1850's. Each is a formal portrait of an individual gentleman photographed in a studio. Some of the men stand in front of a blank or paneled wall on an elaborately decorated carpet, while others are seated. One old veteran who appears to have lost his right eye, Monsieur Loria of the 24th Mounted Chasseur Regiment and a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, stands against a piece of furniture that appears also in other portraits by a curtain. It is not known who the photographer was and the blurring on one or two suggests the difficulty aging subjects had in standing still for several seconds while the plates were exposed.

A tall soldier striking an elegant pose and wearing the grenadier bearskin is Sergeant Taria in the uniform of the Grenadiere de la Garde of 1809-1815. The Mameluke de la Garde is Monsieur Ducel who fought between 1813 and 1815. The dashing figure holding a plumed shako in his right hand is M. Dreuse of the 2nd Light Horse Lancers of the Guard, circa 1813-14. There is Monsieur Mauban of the 8th Dragoon Regiment of 1815 seated and M. Maire of the 7th Hussars circa 1809-15. Wearing a fine shapka is M. Verlinde of the 2nd Lancers, 1815, and seated in a grand hussar uniform is Monsieur Moret of the 2nd Regiment, 1814/15. Monsieur Vitry of the Departmental Guard leans against a piece of furniture by a curtain, while M. Dupont who was fourier for the 1st Hussar, stands with a Mameluke sword.

There is the portly Quartermaster Sergeant Delignon in the uniform of a Mounted Chasseur of the Guard, 1809-1815. Completing the series are Monsieur Schmit of the 2nd Mounted Chasseur Regiment (1813-14) wearing a floppy cap, and finally Grenadier Burg of the 24th Regiment of the Guard of 1815 with his white beard. A carte-de-visite does exist of Moret in a slightly different position than the studio photo.

When and why these men were photographed is a mystery but some clues are offered in Henri Bouchot's book L'Epopée du Costume Militaire Franç ais published in Paris in 1898, and containing pictures by the famous French military illustrator, Job. There is a color plate with a transparent overlay bearing the titled 'Les Vieux de la vieille, Le 5 Mai, 1855'. This depicts ten Napoleonic veterans in their full uniforms passing the column in the center of the Place Vendô me erected by Napoleon to commemorate the battle of Austerlitz. A Second Empire zouave of the current French army looks at the hunched and slow moving procession. Most significantly is the fact that two of the veterans are carrying wreaths. If one compares the individuals in the photographs, they match up very well with the figures crossing the square.

The date of the event - May 5, - provides the reason why these men were in Paris for that was the anniversary of the death of Napoleon and every year on that date veterans gathered in the capital, as the Times of London in May 1855 noted: 'The base and railings of the column of the Place Vendô me appear this day decked out with the annual offerings to the memory of the man whose statue adorns the summit. The display of garlands of immortelles, and other tributes of the kind, is greater than usual...the old soldiers of the Empire performed their usual homage yesterday at the same place.' On the same day, a funeral service was held in the chapel of the Invalides attended by Prince Jerome and other dignitaries. The entire personnel of the Invalides as well as soldiers of the First Empire were present.

A more likely date however, is May 5, 1858, because all the veterans are wearing the Saint Helene medal which had been issued on August 12, 1857 to all veterans of the wars of the Revolution and the Empire. 


Source and courtesy of Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection. Brown Digital Repository. Brown University Library. Special thanks to Professor Charles J. Esdaile, Henry Volquardsen, Josh Provan, Laurent Wiart and Matthew Sage.